terça-feira, 20 de maio de 2014


The Boeing 737 MAX is a family of aircraft being developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The new family is based on the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, which it is to replace. It will be the fourth generation of the 737 family. The primary change is the use of the larger and more efficient CFM International LEAP-1B engines. The airframe is to receive some modifications as well.
The 737 MAX is scheduled for first delivery in 2017, 50 years after the 737 first flew. Boeing has firm orders for the 737 MAX totaling 1,934 as of March 2014.



Since 2006, Boeing has discussed replacing the 737 with a "clean-sheet" design (internally named "Boeing Y1") that could follow the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. A decision on this replacement was postponed, and delayed into 2011.
In 2010, Airbus launched the Airbus A320neo with new engines to improve fuel burn and operating efficiency; it is planned to enter service in 2016. The decision was met with positive reaction by many airlines, which began making major orders for the improved aircraft. Pressure from the airlines for more fuel efficient aircraft caused Boeing to pursue upgrading the 737 with new engines instead of the new Boeing Y1 design.
On August 30, 2011, the company's board of directors approved the 737 MAX project. Boeing predicted that the 737 MAX will provide a 16% lower fuel burn than the current Airbus A320, and 4% lower than the Airbus A320neo. Boeing expects the 737 MAX to meet or exceed the range of the Airbus A320neo. T
The first 737 MAX aircraft is scheduled to be delivered in 2017.
In December 2013, Boeing stated that a recent internal audit forecasts a 14% lower fuel burn than current 737NG series aircraft.
The three variants of the new family are the 737 MAX 7, 737 MAX 8 and 737 MAX 9 which are based on the 737-700, −800 and −900ER, respectively, the best-selling versions of the 737 Next Generation family. Boeing has stated that the fuselage lengths and door configurations from the Boeing 737 Next Generation family will be retained on the 737 MAX variants.
On July 23, 2013, Boeing announced it completed the firm configuration for the 737 MAX 8.


Initially, the customers for the 737 MAX were not disclosed, except for American Airlines. On November 17, 2011, Boeing released the names of two other customers – Lion Air and Aviation Capital Group. At that time, Boeing reported 700 commitments from 9 customers for the 737 MAX. Then on December 13, 2011, Southwest Airlines announced they would be the launch customer for the 737 MAX with a firm order of 150 aircraft and 150 options. By December 2011, Boeing had 948 commitments and firm orders from 13 customers for the 737 MAX.


As production standard, the 737 MAX will feature the Boeing Sky Interior with overhead bins and LED lighting based on the Boeing 787's interior, as well as winglets.

Improving fuel efficiency

Boeing's design improves fuel efficiency in a number of ways. The most significant improvements are to the wing, the interface of wing and engine, and use of winglets. The 737NG's wing creates transonic shock waves on the inboard wing at the interface with the CFM-56-7B engine.
The 737 MAX wing's integration of the Leap engine's nacelle reduces this drag by 0.5%. In addition, the Leap engine is mounted higher and further forward of the wing's leading edge than the CFM-56-7B is on the 737NG's wing.

New wingtip device on the 737 MAX

A new type of wingtip device is to be introduced on the new 737 versions. Boeing designed the device to maximize lift specifically on airplanes with wingspans that fit Category C airport gates. The device is a direct descendant of the winglet designed for the McDonnell Douglas MD-12.
Resembling a three-way hybrid between a blended winglet, wingtip fence, and raked wingtip, Boeing states that this new design should deliver an additional 1.5% improvement in fuel economy over the 10–12% improvement already expected for the 737 MAX.
The fuel savings could be even higher if a laminar flow surface treatment being applied meets expectations. Boeing told Aviation Week and Space Technology that the 737-8 MAX with the new winglet can have a 1.8% better fuel burn than a blended winglet-equipped aircraft on flights of 3,000 nautical miles with 162 passengers.
The advantage increases with flight length, but a short flight of 500 nautical miles has a 1% lower fuel burn with the aircraft flying at Mach 0.79.

Flight deck and flight controls

The manufacturer plans no major modifications in the flight deck as it wants to maintain commonality with the 737 Next Generation family. There will however be 4 new large format displays supplied by Rockwell Collins.
These are 15.1-inch landscape LCD displays that will increase situational awareness and efficiency currently used on the 787 Dreamliner. Boeing also plans to add more fly-by-wire control systems to the 737 MAX family, although Albaugh said that changes would be "very minimal." Boeing has confirmed that fly-by-wire controls will be added to the spoilers.


Boeing spent most of 2011 evaluating two fan diameters of the CFM International Leap-1B engine: 66.1 in (168 cm) or 68.1 in (173 cm), both of which would require few changes to the landing gear to maintain a 16.9 in (42.9 cm) ground clearance beneath the engines. Boeing Commercial Airplanes CEO Jim Albaugh stated the larger fan diameter would produce less fuel burn, but because it is bigger, it produces more drag and is heavier, and would need more extensive airframe changes.[23]
Both fan diameters are an increase from the 61.8 in (157 cm) CFM56-7B engine on the Boeing 737 Next Generation.
The updated airliner is also expected to feature external nacelle chevrons for noise reduction, similar to those on the 787 and 747-8. While the smaller Leap-1B engine would have a lower bypass ratio and higher specific fuel consumption (SFC) than the baseline 78 in (198 cm) Leap-X and 80.7 in (205 cm) Pratt & Whitney PW1100G engine options for the A320neo, the smaller engine will weigh less and create less drag on the airframe.
The 66.1 in (168 cm) engine integrated on the airframe would offer an SFC improvement of 10–12% over the current 737NG CFM56-7B engine. Industry sources report that assessments are underway to revise the tail cone, natural laminar flow nacelle and a hybrid laminar flow vertical stabilizer for additional fuel burn decrease and drag reduction.
In November 2011, Boeing announced the selection of the 68.1 in (173 cm) fan diameter. Because of the larger fan diameter compared to the 737 Next Generation family, the nose landing gear will have to be lengthened by 6–8 inches (15–20 cm) to maintain the required ground clearance. Firm configuration for the 737 MAX is currently scheduled for 2013. On May 17, 2012, Boeing announced a further modification to the fan diameter with an increase to 69.4 inches (176 cm). The larger fan will be paired with a smaller engine core than previously identified as part of a series of minor design changes before the final configuration is set in mid-2013.
There will also be a new digital regulator for the engine bleed air systems which should improve its reliability.


  • 737 MAX 7 – Replacement for the 737-700 and 737-700ER
  • 737 MAX 8 – Replacement for the 737-800; longer fuselage than the -700/MAX 7
  • 737 MAX 9 – Replacement for the 737-900ER; longer fuselage than the -800/MAX 8


Boeing 737 MAX design specifications
737 MAX 7737 MAX 8737 MAX 9
Seating capacity140 (1-class, typical)
126 (2-class, typical)
175 (1-class, typical)
162 (2-class, typical)
192 (1-class, typical)
180 (2-class, typical)
Seat pitch32 in (81 cm) (1-class, typical)
36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class, typical)
Overall length110 ft 5 in (33.7 m)129 ft 8 in (39.5 m)138 ft 4 in (42.2 m)
Wingspan117 ft 10 in (35.9 m)
Overall height40 ft 4 in (12.3 m)
Cruising speedMach 0.79 (522 mph, 842 km/h)
Maximum take-off weight159,400 lb (72,303 kg)181,200 lb (82,191 kg)194,700 lb (88,314 kg)
Cargo capacity966 ft³ (27.3 m³)1,555 ft³ (44 m³)1,826 ft³ (51.7 m³)
Range fully loaded3,800 nmi (7,038 km)3,620 nmi (6,704 km)3,595 nmi (6,658 km)
Engine (× 2)CFM International LEAP-1B
Fan tip diameter69.4 in (1.76 m)
Sources: 737 MAX specifications

Boeing 737 MAX firm orders
Date of
initial order
CountryCustomerMAX 7MAX 8MAX 9Orders
Dec 13, 2011United StatesSouthwest Airlines[n 1][n 2]30[33]170[34]0200
Jan 24, 2012NorwayNorwegian Air Shuttle01000100
Feb 22, 2012IndonesiaLion Air[n 3]00201201
Jul 6, 2012AustraliaVirgin Australia023023
Jul 3, 2012United StatesAir Lease Corporation (ALC)0691584
Jul 12, 2012United StatesUnited Airlines00100100
Sep 20, 2012IrelandAvolon010515
Oct 1, 2012N/AUnidentifiedNot AvailableNANA322
Oct 1, 2012BrazilGol Transportes Aéreos060060
Oct 3, 2012United States/IrelandGECAS095095
Oct 11, 2012United StatesAlaska Airlines0201737
Nov 4, 2012KuwaitALAFCO020020
Nov 5, 2012MexicoAeromexico060060
Nov 14, 2012SingaporeSilkAir031031
Jan 2, 2013United StatesAviation Capital Group0501060
Feb 1, 2013United StatesAmerican Airlines01000100
Feb 13, 2013IcelandIcelandair09716
May 14, 2013TurkeyTurkish Airlines0401050
Jun 19, 2013United StatesCIT Group030030
Jul 10, 2013United KingdomTUI Travel0402060
Aug 7, 2013Czech RepublicTravel Service Airlines0303
Sep 26, 2013CanadaWestJet Airlines2540065
Oct 23, 2013IndiaSpiceJet042042
Dec 3, 2013South AfricaComair0808
Dec 31, 2013United Arab EmiratesFlydubai075075
Feb 12, 2014TurkeySunExpress015015
Mar 31, 2014CanadaAir Canada0332861
Apr 2, 2014UnidentifiedVIP Customer0101
Fonte - Enciclopedia livre
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segunda-feira, 19 de maio de 2014


A Companhia Aérea Shandong, com sede em Jinan, capital da Província de Shandong, leste da China, irá adquirir 50 aviões Boeing-737. Os dois lados assinaram o contrato de compra e venda.
As aeronaves, entre elas os modelos 737NG e 737MAX, serão entregues entre 2016 a 2020, revelou Ma Chongxian, presidente da empresa.
A companhia planeja expandir sua frota para mais de 140 aviões até o final de 2020, o que trará um aumento de 100% em relação a hoje, disse o empresário.
Atualmente a empresa tem 74 aviões comerciais em operação, entre eles 67 aviões modelo Boeing 737.
por Xinhua
Shandong Airlines Co,.Ltd. (Chinese: 山东航空; pinyin: Shāndōng Háng Kōng, nicknamed SDA or 山航 Shānháng) is an airline based in the Shandong Airlines Centre (山东航空大厦 Shāndōng Hángkōng Dàshà) in Jinan, Shandong, China.

The Chinese carrier operates mainly domestic trunk routes from Jinan, Qingdao and Yantai to major cities in China. It is owned by Air China and holds a 10 percent stake in Sichuan Airlines.

Shandong Airlines was established on 12 March 1994 and started operations in September of the same year. In September 1997, it jointly founded the Xinxing Aviation Alliance along with five of China's provincial airlines.
21 April 2014,Shandong Airlines commitment to order 50 Boeing 737s, including 16 Next-Generation 737s and 34 737 MAXs,the order still needs to be approved by the Chinese government and will receive the aircraft in batches between 2016 and 2020.

Shandong Airlines Boeing 737-800

Shandong Airlines operates to the following destinations (as of January 2013):


A Shandong Airlines Boeing 737-300 taxiing at Incheon International Airport

As of March 2014, the Shandong Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft with an average age of 5.5 years:

Shandong Airlines fleet
AircraftIn ServiceOrdersPassengers
Boeing 737-300
Boeing 737-700
Boeing 737-800
Boeing 737 MAX
Bombardier CRJ-200ER
Bombardier CRJ-700ER

The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as Boeing 737NG, is the name given to the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 aircraft. It is the third generation derivative of the 737, and follows the 737 Classic (−300/-400/-500) series, which began production in the 1980s. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners. Produced since 1996 by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, the 737NG series includes 4 variations and can seat between 110 to 210 passengers.
A total of 4,733 737NG aircraft have been delivered by the end of December 2013, with more than 6,600 ordered. Currently, only the -700, -800, and -900ER are produced, as the -600 was not popular, and neither was the -900. Its primary competition is with the Airbus A320 family. Upgraded and re-engined models in development as the 737 MAX series will eventually supplant the 737NG.

The Boeing 737 MAX is a family of aircraft being developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The new family is based on the Boeing 737 Next Generation family, which it is to replace. It will be the fourth generation of the 737 family.
The primary change is the use of the larger and more efficient CFM International LEAP-1B engines. The airframe is to receive some modifications as well. The 737 MAX is scheduled for first delivery in 2017, 50 years after the 737 first flew. Boeing has firm orders for the 737 MAX totaling 1,934 as of March 2014.

terça-feira, 6 de maio de 2014

Cathay Pacific union says female cabin crew's uniforms 'too sexy'

Cathay Pacific flight attendants are asking the airline to redesign its uniforms for women, which they say are too revealing and may provoke sexual harassment.
The union representing cabin crew complains that the blouses are too short, showing off flesh when the attendants bend down to get items out of a food trolley.
The Flight Attendants Union (FAU) also says the skirts of the uniforms, introduced in 2011, are too tight-fitting, but says management has so far rejected its pleas for a modesty makeover.
FAU honorary secretary Michelle Choi said: "The blouse is too short and does not cover enough. Whenever a flight attendant bends down, her waistline is exposed.
"We believe the company intentionally does this to make us look a bit sexier and to let the passenger see more."
Choi said she believed the too-revealing uniforms were contributing to an apparent rise in incidents of sexual harassment of cabin crew by passengers, which she now estimates to affect each cabin crew member on one in every 10 flights.
Cathay Pacific flight attendants are seen dressing in uniforms. Photo: SCMP

Asked why she thought cases of sexual harassment seemed so prevalent, she said: "I think part of the reason is that we treat our passengers so well. They are spoilt in some ways.
"Some of the Marco Polo Club [frequent flier] members think they can do things to us because they are privileged and we somehow allow it. That is very bad.
"They think it is part of their privilege … Afterwards, they believe they can apologise and everything is settled."
Choi added: "When you report it to the flight manager, they always say it is the crew member's decision whether or not to call the police. They tell you, 'It's your decision. Do you want to delay the flight by calling the police?'
"That puts stress on the flight attendant and it is sad the company is not actively supporting and protecting us in cases like this … [Inflight managers] should be trained to have a stronger mindset to protect the crew."
Choi called for the company to issue specific guidelines on how to deal with instances of harassment on flights.
The FAU had passed on complaints from its members, she said, but no action had been taken to adjust the uniforms. The matter is expected to be raised during a meeting with management on May 13.
In a written response, Cathay Pacific said it had modified the design of the uniforms in response to staff feedback prior to the official launch in 2011.
"We welcome feedback from the crew and certain modifications have also been made, including the length of the blouse and the tightness of the skirt.
"Crew are welcome to exchange their uniform any time if they feel the fit is not right."
On the issue of harassment, the company said: "We do not tolerate any form of harassment and take the issue of sexual harassment very seriously."